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So Chocolate… hmm a very common name that all have heard, in-fact almost all of us eat it every single day, I know I do. So here is some history of Chocolate and my favourite recipe that I make very often.

Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavours in the world, and a vast number of foodstuffs involving chocolate have been created, particularly desserts including cakes, pudding, mousse, chocolate brownies, and chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, and bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate moulded into different shapes (e.g., eggs, hearts) have become traditional on certain Western holidays, such as Easter and Valentine’s Day. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.

Although cocoa originated in the Americas, recent years have seen African nations assuming a leading role in producing cocoa. Since the 2000s, Western Africa produces almost two-thirds of the world’s cocoa, with Ivory Coast growing almost half of that. 

Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavouring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamericanpeople made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl  a Nahuatl word meaning “bitter water”. The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavour.


Chocolate is commonly used as a coating for various fruits such as cherries and/or fillings, such as liqueurs.

Disk of chocolate (about 4cm in diameter), as sold in Central America, for making hot cocoa. Note that the chocolate pictured here is soft, can easily be crumbled by hand, and already has sugar added.


Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often called “baking chocolate”, contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, which combines chocolate with sugar.

Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that also contains milk powder or condensed milk. In the UK and Ireland, milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 20% total dry cocoa solids; in the rest of the European Union, the minimum is 25%. “White chocolate” contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids. Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects in humans, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, such as dogs and cats. Chocolate contains “brain cannabinoids” such as anandamide, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine. Dark chocolate has been promoted for unproven health benefits.

White chocolate, although similar in texture to that of milk and dark chocolate, does not contain any cocoa solids. Because of this, many countries do not consider white chocolate as chocolate at all. Because it does not contain any cocoa solids, white chocolate does not contain any theobromine, so it can be consumed by animals.

Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration calls this “sweet chocolate”, and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Semisweet chocolate is a dark chocolate with a low sugar content. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla, and sometimes lecithin have been added. It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking.

Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. It is typically used in baking or other products to which sugar and other ingredients are added. Raw chocolate, often referred to as raw cacao, is always dark and a minimum of 75% cacao.

Poorly tempered chocolate may have whitish spots on the dark chocolate part, called chocolate bloom; it is an indication that sugar and/or fat has separated due to poor storage. It is not toxic and can be safely consumed.

Nutrition and research

Candies, milk chocolate
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,240 kJ (540 kcal)
Sugars 51.5
Dietary fiber 3.4 g
Vitamin A 195 IU
Thiamine (B1)

0.1 mg

Riboflavin (B2)

0.3 mg

Niacin (B3)

0.4 mg

Vitamin B6

0.0 mg

Folate (B9)

11 μg

Vitamin B12

0.7 μg


46.1 mg

Vitamin C

0 mg

Vitamin E

0.5 mg

Vitamin K

5.7 μg


189 mg


2.4 mg


63 mg


0.5 mg


208 mg


372 mg


79 mg


2.3 mg

Other constituents
Water 1.5 g
Caffeine 20 mg
Cholesterol 23 mg
theobromine 205 mg
  • μg = micrograms
  •  mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.


A 100 gram serving of milk chocolate supplies 540 calories. It is 59% carbohydrates(52% as sugar and 3% as dietary fibre), 30% fat and 8% protein (table). Approximately 65% of the fat in milk chocolate is saturated, composed mainly of palmitic acid and stearic acid, while the predominant unsaturated fat is oleic acid (table, see USDA reference for full report).

In 100 gram amounts, milk chocolate is an excellent source (> 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of riboflavin, vitamin B12 and the dietary minerals, manganese, phosphorus and zinc (table). Chocolate is a good source (10-19% DV) of calcium, magnesium and iron(table).

Effects on health

Chocolate may be a factor for heartburn in some people because one of its constituents, theobromine, may affect the oesophageal sphincter muscle, hence permitting stomach acidic contents to enter into the oesophagus. Theobromine is also toxic to some animals unable to metabolise it (see theobromine poisoning).

Excessive consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity to expend the associated calories, can increase the risk of weight gain and possibly obesity. Raw chocolate is high in cocoa butter, a fat which is removed during chocolate refining, then added back in varying proportions during the manufacturing process. Manufacturers may add other fats, sugars, and milk as well, all of which increase the caloric content of chocolate.

Chocolate and cocoa contain moderate to high amounts of oxalate, which may increase risk for kidney stones. During cultivation and production, chocolate may absorb lead from the environment, but the total amounts typically eaten are less than the tolerable daily limit for lead consumption, according to a World Health Organisation report from 2010. However, reports from 2014 indicate that “chocolate might be a significant source” of lead ingestion for children if consumption is high and “one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit.”

A few studies have documented allergic reactions from chocolate in children.


Chocolate and cocoa are under preliminary research to determine if consumption affects the risk of certain cardiovascular diseases or cognitive abilities.




6-8 Single Cups Serving


40 Minutes


Over Night Untouched




  • 1 can of sweetened condensed milk
  • 4 tablespoons cocoa powder
  • 50g cocoa cooking chocolate, grated
  • 50g chopped walnuts
  • 1tablespoons gelatin
  • 2 cups milk
  • 1cups cream (unsweetened)
  • 1cup hot water
  • whipped cream (for decorating)
  • finely grated chocolate (for garnishing)


  1. Dissolve gelatine in hot water.
  2. Add cocoa powder to one cup of milk and heat for 5-7 minutes.
  3. to make a smooth paste.
  4. Add the gelatine, walnuts, chocolate, the other cup of milk and the condensed milk.
  5. Mix very nicely and keep aside.
  6. Whisk cream in another bowl and fold in the chocolate mixture.
  7. Serve chilled with cream and grated chocolate.


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Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavours, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is usually acidified, and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have moulds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.

Hundreds of types of cheese from various countries are produced. Their styles, textures and flavours depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal’s diet), whether they have been pasteurised, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavouring agents. The yellow to red colour of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto ( an orange-red condiment and food colouring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree . It is often used to impart a yellow or orange colour to foods, but sometimes also for its flavour and aroma). Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, garlic, chives or cranberries.

For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs.

Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese; labels on packets of cheese often claim that a cheese should be consumed within three to five days of opening. Generally speaking, hard cheeses, such as parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat’s milk cheese. The long storage life of some cheeses, especially when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favourable.

There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, and the outside has a layer of wax. This specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.

A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine. The cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, purchasing, receiving, storage, and ripening.


There are many types of cheese, with around 500 different varieties recognised by the International Dairy Federation.
Moisture content (soft to hard)

Categorising cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice. The lines between “soft”, “semi-soft”, “semi-hard”, and “hard” are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations. The main factor that controls cheese hardness is moisture content, which depends largely on the pressure with which it is packed into molds, and on aging time.

Fresh, whey and stretched curd cheeses

The main factor in the categorisation of these cheeses is their age. Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days.


Some cheeses are categorised by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced. While most of the world’s commercially available cheese is made from cows’ milk, many parts of the world also produce cheese from goats and sheep. Double cream cheeses are soft cheeses of cows’ milk enriched with cream so that their fat content is 60% or, in the case of triple creams, 75%. The use of the terms “double” or “triple” is not meant to give a quantitative reference to the change in fat content, since the fat content of whole cows’ milk is 3%-4%.

Soft-ripened and blue-vein

There are at least three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is a significant feature: soft ripened cheeses, washed rind cheeses and blue cheeses.

Processed cheeses

Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts, often with the addition of milk, more salt, preservatives, and food coloring. It is inexpensive, consistent, and melts smoothly. It is sold packaged and either pre-sliced or unsliced, in a number of varieties. It is also available in aerosol cans in some countries.

Cooking and eating

At refrigerator temperatures, the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftened butter, and its protein structure is stiff as well. Flavour and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. For improvements in flavour and texture, it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating. If the cheese is further warmed, to 26–32 °C (79–90 °F), the fats will begin to “sweat out” as they go beyond soft to fully liquid.

Above room temperatures, most hard cheeses melt. Rennet-curdled cheeses have a gel-like protein matrix that is broken down by heat. When enough protein bonds are broken, the cheese itself turns from a solid to a viscous liquid. Soft, high-moisture cheeses will melt at around 55 °C (131 °F), while hard, low-moisture cheeses such as Parmesan remain solid until they reach about 82 °C (180 °F). Acid-set cheeses, including halloumi, paneer, some whey cheeses and many varieties of fresh , have a protein structure that remains intact at high temperatures. When cooked, these cheeses just get firmer as water evaporates.

Some cheeses, like raclette, melt smoothly; many tend to become stringy or suffer from a separation of their fats. Many of these can be coaxed into melting smoothly in the presence of acids or starch. Fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a good example of a smoothly melted cheese dish. Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rarebit. Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off. The saying “you can’t melt cheese twice” (meaning “some things can only be done once”) refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone, leaving the non-meltable solids behind.

As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavour of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).


A cheeseboard (or cheese course) may be served at the end of a meal, either replacing or following dessert. A cheeseboard typically comprises portions of contrasting cheese with accompaniments such as crackers, grapes, nuts, celery and chutney. Port or other dessert wines may be served with a cheeseboard.


The nutritional value of cheese varies widely. Cottage cheese may consist of 4% fat and 11% protein while some whey cheeses are 15% fat and 11% protein, and triple-crème cheeses are 36% fat and 7% protein. In general, cheese is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of calcium, protein, phosphorus, sodium and saturated fat. A 28-gram (0.99 oz) (one ounce) serving of cheddar cheese contains about 7 grams (0.25 oz) of protein and 202 milligrams of calcium. Nutritionally, cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (7.1 oz) of milk to provide that much protein, and 150 grams (5.3 oz) to equal the calcium.

MacroNutrients (grams) of common cheeses per 100gm
Cheese Water Protein Fat Carbs
Swiss 37.1 26.9 27.8 5.4
Feta 55.2 14.2 21.3 4.1
Cheddar 36.8 24.9 33.1 1.3
Mozarella 50 22.2 22.4 2.2
Cottage 80 11.1 4.3 3.4
Vitamin contents in %DV of common cheeses per 100gm
Cheese A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 Ch. C D E K
Swiss 17 4 17 0 4 4 1 56 2.8 0 11 2 3
Feta 8 10 50 5 10 21 8 28 2.2 0 0 1 2
Cheddar 20 2 22 0 4 4 5 14 3 0 3 1 3
Mozzarella 14 2 17 1 1 2 2 38 2.8 0 0 1 3
Cottage 3 2 10 0 6 2 3 7 3.3 0 0 0 0
Mineral contents in %DV of common cheeses per 100 grams
Cheese Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Cu Mn Se
Swiss 79 10 1 57 2 8 29 2 0 26
Feta 49 4 5 34 2 46 19 2 1 21
Cheddar 72 4 7 51 3 26 21 2 1 20
Mozzarella 51 2 5 35 2 26 19 1 1 24
Cottage 8 0 2 16 3 15 3 1 0 14

 Ch. = Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium;
Note : All nutrient values including protein are in %DV per 100 grams of the food item except for Macronutrients. Source :

Chilli Cheese Paratha Recipe

Preparation Time: 30 minutes

Servings: 1 people

Serve: Immediately after made


Cheese (processed or morzerella) – grated- 250gms

Onions- nicely chopped- 50 gms

Cucumber- Chopped in cubes- 75 gms

Tomato- Chopped in cubes- 75 gms

Yoghurt- smooth texture- 250 ml

Green Chilies- fine chopped- 25 gms

Wheat Flour (Atta) – 500 gms

Oil- 2 Table Spoon

Cumin Powder- 1 Tea Spoon

Chaat Masala- 1Tea Spoon

Fresh Coriander- Chopped- 5 gms

Chilli Powder ( Mirchi powder ) – 5 gms

Water to knead the dough

Salt to taste


Knead the Dough (To make paratha atta)

  1. in a bowl take whole wheat flour. add salt, oil and water.
  2. mix and then knead into a smooth soft dough. add more water if required while kneading. cover and keep the dough aside for 30 minutes.

Cheese Stuffing

  1. Mix the grated cheese with onion, chilli, salt, cumin powder, chaat masala, coriander & salt according to the taste.

Cucumber-Tomato Yoghurt:

  1. Beat the yoghurt with a hand beater or spoon to make it smooth in texture.
  2. Mix cucumber, tomatoes, salt, chilli powder and yoghurt together.
  3. Keep it in the fridge to let it cool down, to enjoy with hot parathas.

Final Stages:

  1. Roll dough with the rolling pin.
  2. Stuff the cheese stuff in the flat dough right in the centre and cover it up with the sides that are left.
  3. Start rolling the dough again to the medium size.
  4. Keep the pan on medium heat and pour half a teaspoon of oil
  5. Place the flat dough on the pan, and apply oil on both the sides.
  6. Let it cook and the colour become creamish-brown.( As shown in the picture)
  7. Once ready take it off the pan and cut it into four pieces.
  8. Serve it hot with Cucumber- Tomato yoghurt.

You can add more to the stuff by adding, mashed potatoes, green peas, cabbage, corn, and any other vegetable you like. It can me made into heavy stuffing paratha.



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Paneer  is a fresh cheese common in South Asia, especially in Indian, Pakistani, Afghan, Nepali, Sri Lankan, and Bangladeshi cuisines. It is an unaged, acid-set, non-melting farmer cheese or curd cheese made by curdling heated milk with lemon juice, vinegar, or any other food acids. Its crumbly and moist form is called chhena in eastern India and in Bangladesh. 

According to writers such as K.T. Achaya, Andrea S. Wiley and Pat Chapman, the Portuguese introduced the technique of “breaking” milk with acid to Bengal in the 17th century. Thus, Indian acid-set cheeses such as paneer and chhena were first prepared in Bengal, under Portuguese influence.

Nutritional Value of Paneer

Nutritional value per 183 g
Energy 182 kJ (43 kcal)
10 g
Sugars 10 g
2 g
7 g
Vitamin A equiv.

44 μg


230 mg


0 mg


87 mg

  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Preparation of Paneer

Paneer is prepared by adding food acid, such as lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid or yogurt, to hot milk to separate the curds from the whey. The curds are drained in muslin or cheesecloth and the excess water is pressed out. The resulting paneer is dipped in chilled water for 2–3 hours to improve its texture and appearance. From this point, the preparation of paneer diverges based on its use and regional tradition.

In most Nepalese cuisines, the curds are wrapped in cloth, placed under a heavy weight such as a stone slab for two to three hours, and then cut into cubes for use in curries. Pressing for a shorter time (approximately 20 minutes) results in a softer, fluffier cheese.

In Bengali and other east Indian cuisines, the curds are beaten or kneaded by hand into a dough-like consistency, resulting in Chhena (also known as Sana or Chhana). In these regions, Chhena is distinguished from paneer (called Ponir), a salty semi-hard cheese with a sharper flavor and high salt content. Hard Ponir is typically eaten in slices at teatime with biscuits or various types of bread, or deep-fried in a light batter.

In the area surrounding the Gujarati city of Surat, Surti Paneer is made by draining the curds and ripening them in whey for 12 to 36 hours.

Similar cheeses

Anari, a fresh mild whey cheese produced in Cyprus, is very similar in taste and texture to fresh Indian paneer.

Circassian cheese is produced using a similar method and is close in consistency to paneer, but is usually salted.

Farmer cheese, dry curd cottage cheese, and firm versions of quark are similar except that they are made from cultured milk and may be salted.

Queso blanco or queso fresco are often recommended as substitutes in the Americas as they are more commercially available in many American markets. Both are generally salted, unlike paneer.

Use in dishes

 Paneer is the most common type of cheese used in traditional Indian and Pakistani cuisines. The use of paneer is more common in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is sometimes wrapped in dough and deep-fried or served with either spinach (palak paneer) or peas (mattar paneer).

The well-known Rasgulla features plain Chhana beaten by hand and shaped into balls which are boiled in syrup. The Sana / Chhana / Chhena used in such cases is manufactured by a slightly different procedure from paneer; it is drained but not pressed, so that some moisture is retained, which makes for a soft, malleable consistency. It may, however, be pressed slightly into small cubes and curried to form a Dalna in Maithili, Oriya and Bengali cuisines.

Paneer dishes

Some paneer dishes include:

  • Sandesh
  • Chhena murgi
  • Mattar paneer (paneer with peas)
  • Shahi paneer (paneer cooked in a rich, Mughlai curry)
  • Paneer tikka (a vegetarian version of chicken tikka, paneer placed on skewers and roasted)
  • Paneer tikka masala
  • Kadai paneer
  • Chili paneer (with spicy chilies, onions and green peppers, usually served dry and garnished with spring onions)
  • Paneer pakora (paneer fritters)
  • Palak paneer
  • Rasmalai
  • Rasgulla
  • Paneer capsicum (paneer and bell peppers in raisin crème sauce)
  • Khoya paneer
  • Paneer bhurji
  • Paneer momo (dumpling)



Preparation Time: 20 minutes

Servings: 2 people

Serve: Immediately after made


Paneer- cut in cubes- 250gms

Onions- nicely chopped- 50 gms

Tomatoes- nicely chopped- 50 gms

Green Chilies- fine chopped- 25 gms

Cornflour- 2 Table Spoon

Oil- 2 Table Spoon

Cumin Powder- 1 Tea Spoon

Chaat Masala- 1Tea Spoon

Bhujiya- 50 gms

Barik Sev- 50 gms

Lime juice- 1 Table Spoon

Fresh Coriander- Chopped- 5 gms

Sweet Chutney (dates chutney)- 3 Table Spoon

Green Chutney (Coriander chutney)- 2 Table Spoon

Garlic Chutney – 3 Table Spoon

Salt to taste


  1. Take the Paneer cubes and slightly toss it in Cornflour.
  2. Keep a pan on the stove, pour oil, and start toasting the Paneer lightly it is becomes slight orangish-brown on both the sides of the paneer
  3. Once the Paneer is slightly roasted, take it off the stove and keep it a side to cool off.
  4. Take a bowl and add onions, tomatoes, green chilies, Cumin Masala, Chaat powder & start mixing it together.
  5. Then add the Sweet chutney, Green Chutney, Garlic chutney & lime juice and mix well,
  6. Add the Paneer along with the Bhujiya & some salt to taste and mix well.
  7. For garnishing add coriander & Barika sev.


Replacing onions with capsicum & eliminating garlic chutney can make this Jain as well.